For many black people who have lived through apartheid (1948–1994), the hated passbooks they had to carry every day is emblematic of their traumatic experiences of that time. Although the passbook is synonymous with apartheid, the ideology behind it is much older.
In his novel, The Go-Between (1953), Leslie P. Hartley wrote “the past is a foreign country; they do things differently there”. Although Hartley referred to British society at the end of the Victorian era, his famous quote is also relevant to South Africa and other countries that have experienced drastic socio-political changes. The fact that the past is described as “a foreign country” means it can never be fully understood by us who live in the present age because we do not belong there. Post-1994 democratic South Africa and pre-1994 apartheid South Africa are indeed two very different countries. For those who grew up in the former, the latter is “a foreign country”.
“It is better to die for an idea than to live for an idea that will die”
A reflection on the legacy of Onkgopotse Abram Tiro in the context of the history of liberation education. Every age has its own sages and visionaries, men and women who faced the demands of their time with courage and determination and left their mark on history. Onkgopotse was a remarkable man who defied the apartheid regime and was seen as a fearsome enemy by the state. Considering his humble beginnings and rise to become a student activist and the many hats he wore in the various organizations he served, his ultimate goal was the liberation of all South Africans.
During its relatively short history Bloemfontein hosted a surprising number of royal visitors. In August 1860 the 16-year-old Prince Alfred, second son of Queen Victoria, visited Bloemfontein with the Governor of the Cape Colony, Sir George Grey. In May 1925 the British Crown Prince, also known as the Prince of Wales and later Edward VIII, visited Bloemfontein for two days as part of his South African tour, and in February 1934 his brother Prince George (later the Duke of Kent), fourth eldest son of King George V, also paid a two-day-visit to the capital.
Image 1: An aerial photograph of Oliewenhuis shows the garden’s formal layout with the main garden path as focal point, c. 1990s. (Photo: Oliewenhuis Art Museum)
The style and design of a garden often determine how it is experienced and appreciated by humans. Informal landscape gardens are best enjoyed by wandering around and exploring them serendipitously. In these gardens elements such as colour, texture, scent and sound stimulate the senses.